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Dark energy hides behind phantom fields

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Quintessence and phantom fields, two hypotheses formulated using data from satellites, such as Planck and WMAP, are among the many theories that try to explain the nature of dark energy. Now researchers from Barcelona and Athens suggest that both possibilities are only a mirage in the observations and it is the quantum vacuum which could be behind this energy that moves our universe.

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SINC | March 25 2014 11:19

Cosmologists believe that some three quarters of the universe are made up of a mysterious dark energy which would explain its accelerated expansion. The truth is that they do not know what it could be, therefore they put forward possible solutions.

One is the existence of quintessence, an invisible gravitating agent that instead of attracting, repels and accelerates the expansion of the cosmos. From the Classical World until the Middle Ages, this term has referred to the ether or fifth element of nature, together with earth, fire, water and air.

Another possibility is the presence of an energy or phantom field whose density increases with time, causing an exponential cosmic acceleration. This would reach such speed that it could break the nuclear forces in the atoms and end the universe in some 20,000 million years, in what is called the Big Rip.

The experimental data that underlie these two hypotheses comes from satellites such as Planck of the European Space Agency (ESA) and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) of NASA. Observations from the two probes are essential for solving the so-called equation of the state of dark energy, a characterising mathematical formula, the same as that possessed by solid, liquid and gaseous states.

Now researchers from the University of Barcelona (Spain) and the Academy of Athens (Greece) have used the same satellite data to demonstrate that the behaviour of dark energy does not need to resort to either quintessence or phantom energy in order to be explained. The details have been published in the ‘Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society’ journal.

“Our theoretical study demonstrates that the equation of the state of dark energy can simulate a quintessence field, or even a phantom field, without being one in reality, thus when we see these effects in the observations from WMAP, Planck and other instruments, what we are seeing is an mirage,” told SINC Joan Solà, one of the authors from University of Barcelona.

Nothing fuller than the quantum vacuum

“What we think is happening is a dynamic effect of the quantum vacuum, a parameter that we can calculate,” explained the researcher. The concept of the quantum vacuum has nothing to do with the classic notion of absolute nothingness. “Nothing is more ‘full’ than the quantum vacuum since it is full of fluctuations that contribute fundamentally to the values that we observe and measure,” Solà pointed out.illu

These scientists propose that dark energy is a type of dynamical quantum vacuum energy that acts in the accelerated expansion of our universe. This is in contrast to the traditional static vacuum energy or cosmological constant.

The drawback with this strange vacuum is that it is the source of problems such as the cosmological constant, a discrepancy between the theoretical data and the predictions of the quantum theory that drives physicists mad.

“However, quintessence and phantom fields are still more problematic, therefore the explanation based on the dynamic quantum vacuum could be the more simple and natural one,” concluded Solà.

References:

Spyros Basilakos, Joan Sola. “Effective equation of state for running vacuum: “mirage” quintessence and phantom dark energy”. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 437(4), February 2014. DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt2135.

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Geographical area: Europe
Source: SINC

Comment

  • (20) Paul bechtel |Monday 31 March 2014 1:04:52 pm

    There is no need for a phantom field which is shown by the below presentation.


    How the particles move by resonating through the JAH Field
    at v=c is set by the maximum constant linear relative velocity
    moment spin of each JAH, which is stationary in the JAH Field
    and with all alpha degrees of spin moment.

    This theory is believed to provide answers to all the unanswered
    questions in physics that are centered on the seminal equation :
    the cube root of 10^-50ccm/10.^50 JAH=10-^33 1/3cm, which
    governs the smallest possible associated diameter with
    universal energy/mater, E, which diameter is that of the apparent length of a string.

    The smallest dimension in space-time is the JAH frequency at
    alpha equal to 90 degrees, which equals 10^-50m=JAH
    lambda (wave length).


    PREDICTIONS

    1. Galaxies reaching near light expansion velocity at the
    edge of the universe disintegrate back to the JAH Field,
    leaving gamma ray bursts and non-existent optical galaxy
    photons, solving the mystery of the missing galaxies.

    2.Where such gamma ray bursts occur, the background
    radiation will show a slight increase relative to the
    average 3 degree measured Solar System MBR, as the

    burst permeates to the center of our universe. Because the

    MBR is almost constant, this supports the Milky Way as being

    located at the approximate center of the universe.



    3.That Black Holes are areas where gravity has been
    focused, ie.. Center of a galaxy, and the JAH Field is not
    able to resonate any groups of JAH (matter) through the
    field, causing no transfer of light photons. This applies to
    any large areas of focused gravity, ie.. galaxy clusters,
    creating a universe of many Black Holes of all
    magnitudes. The same force, gravity-inertia, exists
    between resonating JAH and the JAH Field, which is caused by
    the attraction force of one resonating matter JAH passing behind
    another resonating stationary JAH. The Cosmological constant

    negative force is caused by the repulsion of resonating JAH with

    the JAH Field.

    4.That because the JAH are stationary within the JAH
    Field, the Michelson-Morley experiment does not apply
    as a method of determining the JAH Field existence.
    Nor does the operator the square root of one minus v
    squared divided by c square apply to the JAH Field.

    5. That the General Theory of Relativity applies to the
    physics of the the groups of JAH(matter) within the Field

    but not to the JAH Field.

    6. That Quantum Mechanics and Relativity can be married
    in this theory once the non-relative parts are excluded.

    7. That the bending of light photons in a magnetic field is
    caused by the local inability of JAH to resonate groups of
    matter through the Field and not because there is a guiding
    warp of space-time.

    8. That the alleged missing matter is not dark matter but
    is the Zero Point creations of hydrogen or virtual positive

    particles that remain in the field.

    9. That there is only one true particle which is combined into
    groups (matter) by threes and all others are fragments
    which cease to resonate as a group. Depending on the
    up-down, cw-ccw rotation, the quarks are formed at the
    forced disassociation of the three true particles, as well
    as all other fragments, ie.. glueons, Z, graviton, etc. and
    cease to resonate as a group in the JAH Field.

    10. In the beginning there was a naked singularity of the
    JAH Field. Through Zero Point Vacuum Energy activity,
    hydrogen is formed throughout the universe and
    collected into gravity formed star masses, which,
    formed the galaxies. As the universe expanded, new
    galaxies filled the voids creating a perpetually changing
    but static universe.

    This theory presents The Perfect Cube which creates absolute physics
    constants to within four significant figures.

    THE Perfect Cube Equal the cube root of the fraction
    10^-50ccm/ 10^50 JAH = 10^-33 1/3cm
    so every 10^-50ccm of space/time contains 10^50 JAH (true energy EE)
    Each JAH spins = X /d

    Then rho = 2.998x10^8 m/s /10-^33 1/3cm = JAH Spin = 9.54x10^42 1/3Hz

    Because each JAH has equal spin, its True Energy EE = Planck Constant
    = 6.625 x 10^ -34 J.s / 9.54 x 10^ 42 1/3 s.

    JAH EE = 6.949 x 10^-77 1/3 J.

    The electron volt equivalent = h J/ev.

    The JAH eV = 6.949 x10^-77 1/3 J x 1.602 x 10 ^-19 J/ev = 4.343 x 10 ^-58
    1/3 eV/JAH

    The mass of each JAH = JAH eV x m e/MeV

    m JAH = 9.11 x 10^ -31 Kg x 4.343 x 10^ -52 1/3 MeV / 5.11 x 10^ 6 MeV =
    7.742 x10^ -89 1/3 Kg, where : me =9.11 x 10^ -31 Kg

    e MeV = 4.343 x 10 ^-52 MeV

    The number of JAH/e = 9.11 x 10^ -31 Kg / 7.742 x 10 ^-89 1/3 Kg. =
    1.177 x 10^ 58 1/3 JAH/e

    The 10^ 1/3 JAH/e = the binding energy EE between adjacent resonating
    JAH = .177 x 10 ^58 1/3 JAH.

    Therefore, the absolute electron mass = m e = 1.177 x 10^ 58 / 7.742
    x 10^-89 1/3 Kg.

    m e = 9.0994 x 10 ^-31 1/3 Kg. which is approx. that of the standard
    constant e.

    Proton mass = 1836 x 9.0994 x 10 ^-31 1/3 Kg. Therefore, the Proton
    absolute mass =1.67244 x 10 ^-27 1/3 Kg. , which is approx. that of
    the standard constant.

    Mass of hydrogen = Hm = 1.672 x 10^ -27 Kg + 9.0994 x 10^ -31 1/3 Kg. =
    1.682 x 10 ^-27 Kg.

    Diff. between JAH E ( E=mc^2 ) and JAH EE is =( 7.742 x 10 ^-89 Kg )
    (2.998 x 10^ 8 m/s )2 = 6.9488 x 10^ -73 J.s

    The electromagnetic spectrum runs from 6.625 x 10 ^-34 J.s ( 137 ),
    therefore,
    JAH EE max = 9.076 x 10 ^-34 J.s.

    There are 137 prime relative gradations in the JAH EE spectrum
    = 9.0763 x 10^ -30 J.s at 90 degree relative and 6.625 x 10 ^-34 J.s at 0
    degrees relative. These set the Fine Line Constant distances.

    This resolves the issue between Higgs and others as to who first presented his

    theory since as stated above, the mass of the JAH is 7.742 x10^ -89 1/3 Kg

    which is far beyond the ability of the Cern accelerator.



    Copy write 1959
    bechcube2000@yahoo.com
    602-413-3371


    I look forward to your resolution by publication of the above and thank you

    for your assistance in the resolution of this matter.



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